Native Plants

NATIVE PLANTS

 

            Native plants have been growing in popularity. There many reasons for this – People feel that if they purchase a plant that is native to the area, they then know the plant is already predisposed to doing well in the area. Some people simply want to be more conscientious of the environment. They don’t want to promote the invasion of alien species to the area. Sometimes these alien species can become a problem in the environment choking out the native species.

            Despite this interest, it is sometimes hard to find native plants. One of the biggest reasons for this is that many of the plants on the market today are varieties that have been improved upon or selected due to improved characteristics over the species. It’s important to understand that these improved varieties still qualify in many people’s minds as native. For example, Ilex glabra (Inkberry) is a native. Ilex glabra ‘Densa’ is a variety of Inkberry that has been selected out for its smaller more compact shape and disease resistance. Only the hardcore native plant enthusiast will have trouble with this and in that case will stick to straight species.

 The following is a list of trees, shrubs, and perennials that are native to the Northeastern US:                                                                                              

W = Tolerates moist or wet soils

D = Tolerates dry or difficult soils

B = Attracts birds, butterflies, or pollinators

DR = Deer-resistant                           

SHADE TREES


Acer rubrum                            Red Maple, W

Acer saccharinum                   Silver Maple, W

Acer saccharum                      Sugar Maple

Asimina triloba                        Paw-Paw

Betula lenta                             Sweet Birch, B

Betula nigra                            River Birch, W, B

Betula papyrifera                    Paper Birch, B

Betula populifolia                    Gray Birch, B

Carpinus caroliniana              American Hornbeam, W, B

Celtis occidentalis                   Hackberry, D, B

Fagus grandifolia                    American Beech,  B

Gymnocladus dioicus              Kentucky Coffeetree

Liquidambar styraciflua          Sweetgum, W, D

Liriodendron tulipifera            Tuliptree

Nyssa sylvatica                        Black Gum, Tupelo, W, D

Ostrya virginiana                    Hophornbeam, D

Plantanus occidentalis            American Sycamore, W, D

Prunus americana                   Wild Plum, B

Quercus alba                           White Oak                                                   

Quercus bicolor                      Swamp White Oak, W, D

Quercus coccinea                    Scarlet Oak, D

Quercus ellipsoidalis               Northern Pin Oak, D

Quercus marocarpa                Bur Oak, W, D

Quercus muehlenbergii           Chinkapin Oak, D

Quercus prinus                          Chestnut Oak, D

Quercus rubra                           Red Oak,                                

Quercus velutina                      Black Oak, D

Sassafras albidum                   Sassafras, D, B

Tilia americana                        Basswood      

 

FLOWERING TREES

Amelanchier canadensis         Shadbush Serviceberry, W, B

Amelanchier laevis                  Allegheny Serviceberry, W, B

Cercis Canadensis                    Eastern Redbud

Chionanthus virginicus           Fringetree, W, D, B

Cornus alternifolia                  Pagoda Dogwood, B

Cornus florida                          Flowering Dogwood, B

Magnolia virginiana                Sweetbay Magnolia, W

 

EVERGREEN  TREES

Juniperus virginiana               Eastern Red Cedar, D

Larix laricina                            Eastern Larch, Tamarack, W

Picea glauca                             White Spruce, B, DR

Pinus strobus                            Eastern White Pine, B

Thuja occidentalis                   Arborvitae, Northern White Cedar, W, D, B

Tsuga canadensis                    Canadian Hemlock

 

SHRUBS

Aronia arbutifolia                    Red Chokeberry, W, D

Aronia melanocarpa               Black Chokeberry, W, D

Cephalanthus occidentalis      Buttonbush, W, B

Clethra alnifolia                        Summersweet, W, B

Comptonia peregrina              Sweetfern, D

Cornus sericea                          Red-osier Dogwood, W

Corylus americana                  American Filbert, D, B

Diervilla lonicera                      Bush Honeysuckle, D, B

Gaultheria procumbens          Wintergreen, D

Hamamelis virginiana             Witchhazel, D

Hydrangea arborescens          Smooth Hydrangea

Ilex glabra                                  Inkberry, W, D, B

Ilex verticillata                           Winterberry, W, B

Itea virginica                              Virginia Sweetspire, W, B

Lindera benzoin                         Spicebush, W, B

Myrica pensylvanica                Northern Bayberry, W, D, B, DR

Physocarpus opulifolius           Common Ninebark, W, D, B

Prunus maritima                       Beach Plum, D, B

Rhus aromatic ‘Gro-Low’        Gro-Low Fragrant Sumac, D, DR

Rhus copallina                           Dwarf-winged Sumac, D

Rosa palustris                            Swamp Rose, W

Salix discolor                              Pussy Willow, W

Sambucus canadensis               Elderberry, W, B

Vaccinium spp.                           Blueberry, W, B

Viburnum lentago                      Nannyberry, W, B

 

GRASSES           All Grasses are Deer-Resistant

Bouteloua gracilis                   Blue Gramma Grass, D, DR

Carex sp.                                    Sedges , W, DR

Chasmanthium latifolium        Northern Sea Oats, D, DR

Deschampsia cespitosa           Tufted Hairgrass, W, DR

Panicum virgatum                   Switch Grass, W, D, DR

Schizachyrium scoparium       Little Bluestem, D, DR

Sporobolus heterolepsis          Prairie Dropseed, W,   D, DR

 FERNS  All Ferns are Deer-Resistant

Athyrium felix-femina              Lady Fern

Adiantum pedatum                   Maidenhair Fern

Dennstaedtia punctilobula       Hay-Scented Fern, D, DR

Dryopteris goldiana                  Goldie’s Fern, DR

Dryopteris marginalis               Marginal Shield Fern, D, DR

Matteucia struthiopteris           Ostrich Fern, W, DR

Osmunda cinnamomea             Cinnamon Fern, W, DR

Osmunda regalis                        Royal Fern, W, DR

Polystichum acrostichoides      Christmas Fern, D, DR

Thelypteris noveboracensis       New York Fern, W, DR

 

PERENNIALS

Amsonia tabernaemontana     Bluestar, B, DR

Aquilegia canadensis                Wild Columbine, D, B           

Arisaema triphyllum                 Jack-in-the-Pulpit, DR

Aruncus dioicus                          Goat’s Beard, B

Asarum canadense                     Wild Ginger, DR

Asclepias incarnata                    Butterly Weed, D, B, DR

Asclepias tuberosa                      Milkweed, W, B, DR

Aster spp.                                      Aster, B

Baptisia australis                         False Indigo, D, DR

Boltonia asteroides                      False Aster, W

Caltha palustris                            Marsh Marigold, W

Chelone spp.                                  Turtlehead, W, B

Chrysogonum virginianum         Gold-Star, D

Cimicifuga racemosa                    Black   Snakeroot,

Black Cohosh, B, DR

Coreopsis spp.                             Tickseed, D, B

Dicentra exima                            Fringed Bleeding Heart, DR

Dodecatheon maedia                  Shooting Star

Echinacea purpurea                    Purple Coneflower, B

Erythronium americanum         Trout Lily, Dog-Tooth Violet

Eupatorium spp.                          Joe-Pye Weed, Boneset, W, B, DR

Filipendula rubra                        Meadowsweet

Geranium maculatum               Wild Geranium, D, DR

Helenium autumnale                 Sneezeweed, W, B

Helianthus spp.                          Perennial Sunflower, W, B

Heliopsis helianthoides             False Sunflower, D, B

Heuchera americana                Alumroot, D

Hibiscus moscheutos                Rose Mallow, W

Iris cristata                                Crested Iris

Iris versicolor                            Blue Flag Iris, W

Lamium maculatum                Spotted Dead-Nettle, DR

Liatris spicata                          Blazing Star, Gayfeather, W, B

Lobelia cardinalis                    Cardinal Flower, W, B

Lobelia syiphilitica                  Blue Lobelia, W, B

Mertensia virginica                 Virginia Bluebells

Monarda didyma                     Beebalm, Oswego Tea, B, DR

Monarda fistulosa                   Wild Bergamot, D,B, DR

Penstemon digitalis                 Beard-Tongue

Phlox divaricata                      Woodland Phlox, B

Physostegia virginiana           Obedient Plant , W, B

Polemonium spp.                     Jacob’s Ladder

Polygonatum biflorum            Solomon’s Seal

Potentilla tridentata                Three-Toothed Cinquefoil

Rudbeckia spp.                          Black-Eyed Susan, Coneflower , B

Sanguisorba canadensis          American Burnet

Sedum ternatum                      Wild Stonecrop, D, B

Solidago spp.                             Goldenrod, D, B

Thalictrum spp.                         Meadow Rue, W

Tiarella cordifolia                     Foam Flower

Trandescantia virginiana        Spiderwort

Trillium spp.                               Trillium

Uvalaria grandiflora                 Bellwort

Veronicastrum virginicum       Culvers Root, W